Lesson on energy systems for swimmers, covering ATP, three muscle engines, and how to regenerate spent energy.
Important for coaches and swimmers.
[00:02] Understanding the three energy systems in muscles is crucial for coaches and swimmers.
- ATP is the universal molecule for energy in organisms.
- The three engines in muscles are the phosphagen system, glycolysis, and the aerobic system.
- The phosphagen system is the simplest engine and relies heavily on phosphates.
- Creatine is a secondary battery that replenishes ATP in one step reaction.
[06:11] Creatine phosphate helps with short sprints.
- Creatine phosphate is a powerful engine that provides the most energy at any one time.
- It cannot be trained and lasts for about five seconds, after which the glycolysis system takes over.
[11:42] Lactate is not lactic acid and is used to regenerate NAD+ during high-intensity exercise.
- Lactate is formed when pyruvate reacts with NADH to recreate NAD+.
- Regenerating NAD+ allows glycolysis to continue, providing energy for high-intensity exercise.
[00:40] Lactate and acid go up together, but it's technically incorrect to say that lactic acid is generated or that acid comes from lactate.
- Lactate is a surrogate marker for hydrogen and acid production.
- The aerobic system is an efficient system that does not produce lactate or acid production.
[22:32] The aerobic system takes time to warm up and produces more ATP than glycolysis.
- The Krebs cycle produces NADH and CO2, which is breathed out.
- The mitochondria uses electrons to produce ATP and oxygen to create water.
[27:34] Breathing oxygen is important to prevent reactive oxygen species.
- Antioxidant foods help scavenge bad oxygen that can cause inflammation and damage to proteins and DNA.
- Different energy systems are used in different races, and breathing serves different purposes in short and long races.
[32:55] Different races use different energy systems.
- Short races rely on glycolysis, while long races rely on the aerobic system.
- The duration of the race determines which energy system is used.
[38:06] Understanding lactate threshold and pacing is crucial for endurance in races.
- Lactate threshold is the maximum amount of lactate that can be produced without overloading the system.
- Pacing yourself to reach the lactate threshold at the end of the race allows for maximum ATP production without overloading the system.